Hot Smoke Test for Very Tall Atriums

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Problem Statement

This hot smoke test is to demonstrate that the automatic operation of the engineered smoke control system installed in the hotel is able to vent the smoke from a fire out of the very high atrium space and maintain tenable conditions for evacuees.


Due to the high smoke extraction point at 23rd storey (70m) of the hotel tower, the hot smoke will lose buoyancy as it plumes upwards from the fire source at the ground level.


The hot smoke test conducted partially adopted the procedures documented in AS 4391:1999. The adopted standard recommends the required fire size (i.e. tray size) for smoke tests in atriums up to 50m in height only. Therefore the required tray size for the 70m atrium was derived by extrapolation. The test fire provides a dynamic buoyant flow of smoke representative of real fire plumes. In the test, due considerations have to be taken in the respect of fire safety, medical support and security provisions for addressing risks such as life safety and property damage when conducting the testing. To generate a fire size of 2,250 kW for hot smoke test of 70m height, six (6) numbers of A1 size (841mm (L) x 595mm (W) x 130mm (H)) fire trays were employed. The fuel burnt in the fire trays was methylated spirit. The fire trays were immersed into B1 size (990mm (L) x 700mm (W) x 180mm (H)) water bath trays to prevent overheating of the fire trays.

Fig. 1: Front and Side View of Very High Hotel Atrium

Fig. 2: Overall Set up & Smoke Generation

Fig. 3: Extraction of Smoke with Smoke Curtains Descended


The hot smoke test conducted at the very high hotel atrium has met the minimum criteria of maintaining tenable conditions at hotel tower ground level. The test was witnessed by representatives from local fire authority and the Registered Inspectors (RI), which had acknowledged that the hot smoke test had been conducted successfully.